Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP, IEC 62439-3-Clause 4) redundancy is implemented in the nodes rather than in the network. Especially adapted nodes (Dual Attached Nodes- DANs), are connected to two independent Ethernet networks (LAN A and LAN B), and send the same frames over both networks
High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR, IEC 62439-3-Clause 5) provides redundancy by sending packets in both directions through a ring network. A simple HSR network consists of Doubly Attached Bridging Nodes, each having two Ethernet ports. A HSR node sends the same frame over both ports
TSN stands for Time Sensitive Networking. It is the name of the IEEE 802.1 Task Group responsible for standards at Data Link Layer. This group provides the specifications that will allow time-synchronized, low latency, streaming services through IEEE 802 networks. TSN is unique in that its streams are delivered with guaranteed bandwidth and deterministic latency.
IEEE 1588-2008, also known PTPv2, offers high accuracy clock synchronization for interconnected systems. There are many sectors that benefit from this protocol, like finance, aerospace and industry. A representative IEEE 1588-2008 case-of-use is the adoption of this protocol as synchronization mechanism in the standard for Substation Automation (IEC 61850)
It is a network protocol that ensures a loop-free topology for Ethernet networks. Nowadays it is a popular solution to implement redundant networks in critical systems for Energy, Aerospace or Factory Automation. This protocol is incorporated into IEEE 802.1Q-2014. RSTP provides faster convergence than 802.1D STP when topology changes occur.
Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP) is a data network protocol standardized by the International Electro technical Commission as IEC 62439-2. MRP allows rings of Ethernet switches to overcome any single failure with recovery time much faster than achievable with traditional alternatives like Spanning Tree Protocol. However, it is not able to offer zero-delay recovery time like PRP or HSR
The term IRIG signals is used to refer to a whole group of serial time codes, which use a continuous stream of binary data to transmit information on date and time. The individual time code formats can be distinguished by the signal characteristics.
Device Level Ring (DLR) is a Layer 2 protocol that provides media redundancy in a ring topology. The DLR protocol is intended primarily for implementation in CP 2/2 end devices that have multiple Ethernet ports and embedded switch technology. The DLR protocol provides for fast network fault detection and reconfiguration in order to support the most demanding control applications.
The Sampled Measured Value (SMV or SV) Process Bus concept that was introduced by the IEC 61850-9-2 standard. This standard proposes that the Current and Voltage Transformer (CT, PT) outputs and other signals are digitized at the source and then communicated to those devices using an Ethernet-Based Local Area Network (LAN).